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Clinical References

1, 2] D-aspartic acid supports production of luteinizing hormone:

D’Aniello A. D-Aspartic acid: an endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role. Brain Res Rev. 2007 Feb;53(2):215-34. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.08.005. Epub 2006 Nov 21. PMID: 17118457.

D’Aniello A, Di Fiore MM, Fisher GH, Milone A, Seleni A, D’Aniello S, Perna AF, Ingrosso D. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in rat neuroendocrine tissues and their role in the modulation of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone release. FASEB J. 2000 Apr;14(5):699-714. doi: 10.1096/fasebj.14.5.699. PMID: 10744627.

3] D-aspartic acid supports production of luteinizing hormone:

D’Aniello A, Di Cosmo A, Di Cristo C, Annunziato L, Petrucelli L, Fisher G. Involvement of D-aspartic acid in the synthesis of testosterone in rat testes. Life Sci. 1996;59(2):97-104. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(96)00266-4. PMID: 8699926.

4] D-AA increased testosterone by 15% after 6 days and 42% after 12 days:

Topo E, Soricelli A, D’Aniello A, Ronsini S, D’Aniello G. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:120. Published 2009 Oct 27. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-7-120. PMCID: 2774316.

5] D-AA increased testosterone by over 20% and improved symptoms of low testosterone in overweight men with low testosterone levels:

Bloomer JR, Gunnels TA, Moran RG, Schriefer JM. Influence of a D-aspartic acid/sodium nitrate/vitamin D3 supplement on physiological parameters in middle-aged men: a pilot study. Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 2015, 8:43-48. Doi 10.2174/1876396001508010043

6] Fenugreek increased testosterone levels by up to 46% and improved energy, mood and libido:

Maheshwari A, Verma N, Swaroop A, et al. Efficacy of FurosapTM, a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, in Enhancing Testosterone Level and Improving Sperm Profile in Male Volunteers. Int J Med Sci. 2017;14(1):58-66. Published 2017 Jan 10. doi:10.7150/ijms.17256. PMCID: 5278660

7] Fenugreek increased free and total testosterone and improved libido after 12 weeks:

Rao A, Steels E, Inder WJ, Abraham S, Vitetta L. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study. Aging Male. 2016 Jun;19(2):134-42. doi: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1135323. Epub 2016 Jan 20. PMID: 26791805.

8] Fenugreek and bush clover extract increased testosterone and improved overall symptoms of low testosterone:

Park HJ, Lee KS, Lee EK, Park NC. Efficacy and Safety of a Mixed Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and Lespedeza cuneata in the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. World J Mens Health. 2018;36(3):230-238. doi:10.5534/wjmh.170004 PMCID: 6119847

9] Fenugreek extract improved energy, mood, mental alertness and libido:

Maheshwari A, Verma N, Swaroop A, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, Tiwari K, Bagchi D. Efficacy of FurosapTM, a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, in Enhancing Testosterone Level and Improving Sperm Profile in Male Volunteers. Int J Med Sci. 2017 Jan 10;14(1):58-66. doi: 10.7150/ijms.17256. PMID: 28138310; PMCID: PMC5278660.

10] Fenugreek extract significantly improved body strength and reduced lower body fat compared to a placebo:

Poole C, Bushey B, Foster C, Campbell B, Willoughby D, Kreider R, Taylor L, Wilborn C. The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Oct 27;7:34. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-34. PMID: 20979623; PMCID: PMC2978122.

11] Fenugreek increased testosterone levels and reduced body fat compared to a placebo:

Wilborn C, Taylor L, Poole C, Foster C, Willoughby D, Kreider R. Effects of a purported aromatase and 5α-reductase inhibitor on hormone profiles in college-age men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Dec;20(6):457-65. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.20.6.457. PMID: 21116018.

12, 13] Fenugreek extract improved libido and sexual function in men aged 25-52:

Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation. Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1294-300. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3360. Epub 2011 Feb 10. PMID: 21312304. Natural Medicine Journal Oct 2016, 8-10

14] Zinc deficiency can interfere with testosterone production:

Netter A, Hartoma R, Nahoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Arch Androl. 1981 Aug;7(1):69-73. doi: 10.3109/01485018109009378. PMID: 7271365.

15] A low zinc diet caused a 75% decrease in testosterone levels after 20 weeks:

Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, Hess JW, Brewer GJ. Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(96)80058-x. PMID: 8875519.

16] A daily ZMA supplement increased free testosterone by 33% after 8 weeks:

Billa L.R & Conte V. Effects of a novel zinc-magnesium formulation on hormones and strength. Journal of Exercise Physiology online. 2000 Oct; vol 3-4 ISSN 1097-9751

17] Men with normal testosterone levels had significantly higher zinc levels compared to those with low testosterone levels:

Chang CS, Choi JB, Kim HJ, Park SB. Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissue. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Dec;144(1-3):264-71. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9085-y. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PMID: 21671089.

18] Leydig cells are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage:

Aitken RJ, Roman SD. Antioxidant systems and oxidative stress in the testes. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2008 Oct-Dec;1(1):15-24. doi: 10.4161/oxim.1.1.6843. PMID: 19794904; PMCID: PMC2715191.

19] Zinc protects cells against oxidative damage:

Marreiro DD, Cruz KJ, Morais JB, Beserra JB, Severo JS, de Oliveira AR. Zinc and Oxidative Stress: Current Mechanisms. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Mar 29;6(2):24. doi: 10.3390/antiox6020024. PMID: 28353636; PMCID: PMC5488004.

20] Zinc citrate shows better absorption than other forms of zinc:

Wegmüller R, Tay F, Zeder C, Brnic M, Hurrell RF. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide. J Nutr. 2014 Feb;144(2):132-6. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.181487. Epub 2013 Nov 20. PMID: 24259556; PMCID: PMC3901.

21] Zinc may be beneficial to physical performance:

Kilic M, Baltaci AK, Gunay M, et al. The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):247-252

22] Zinc may have a positive effect on libido and erections:

Dissanayake D, Wijesinghe PS, Ratnasooriya WD, Wimalasena S. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2009 Jul;2(2):57-61. doi: 10.4103/0974-1208.57223. PMID: 19881149; PMCID: PMC2800928.

23] Men with sufficient vitamin D levels have significantly higher testosterone than those with low levels:

Wehr E, Pilz S, Boehm BO, März W, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Association of vitamin D status with serum androgen levels in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Aug;73(2):243-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03777.x. Epub 2009 Dec 29. PMID: 20050857.

24] Doubling vitamin D intake increased total testosterone levels by 25.23% and free testosterone levels by 20.27% in vitamin D deficient men:

Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar;43(3):223-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854. Epub 2010 Dec 10. PMID: 21154195.

25] Increased vitamin D intake in older men enhanced free testosterone levels by 18.87% and significantly decreased SHBG:

Tirabassi G, Sudano M, Salvio G, Cutini M, Muscogiuri G, Corona G, Balercia G. Vitamin D and Male Sexual Function: A Transversal and Longitudinal Study. Int J Endocrinol. 2018 Jan 8;2018:3720813. doi: 10.1155/2018/3720813. PMID: 29531528; PMCID: PMC5817208.

26] Low vitamin D levels in male Special Operations soldiers were strongly linked to lower testosterone levels:

Wentz, Laurel & CB, Berry-Caban & JD, Eldred & Q, Wu. (2015). Vitamin D Correlation with Testosterone Concentration in US Army Special Operations Personnel. Conference: Experimental Biology, Boston, MA

27] Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation:

Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Hyppönen E, Berry J, Vieth R, Lanham-New S. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun;95(6):1357-64. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.031070. Epub 2012 May 2. PMID: 22552031; PMCID: PMC3349454.

28] Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation:

Nowak A, Boesch L, Andres E, Battegay E, Hornemann T, Schmid C, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Suter PM, Krayenbuehl PA. Effect of vitamin D3 on self-perceived fatigue: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Dec;95(52):e5353. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005353. Erratum in: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jan 20;96(3):e6038. PMID: 28033244; PMCID: PMC5207540.

29] Vitamin D improves mitochondrial activity:

Sinha A, Hollingsworth K, Ball S, Cheetham, T.  Improving the vitamin D status of vitamin D deficient adults is associated with improved mitochondrial oxidative function in skeletal muscle. Endocrine Abstracts (2013) 31 OC1.6 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.31.OC1.6

30] Vitamin D proven to boost energy from within the cells:

Public Release: 5-Apr-2013 Public Release: 06-Apr-2013

31] Professional soccer players performed better after 6 weeks of vitamin D supplementation:

Koundourakis NE, Androulakis NE, Malliaraki N, Margioris AN. Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 3;9(7):e101659. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101659. PMID: 24992690; PMCID: PMC4081585.

32] Vitamin D increased cycling performance by 30% after 2 weeks:

Vitamin D pill a day may improve exercise performance and lower risk of heart disease. Society for Endocrinology, Public Release: 1-Nov-2015

33] Increased vitamin D intake was significantly linked to improved erectile function:

Tirabassi G, Sudano M, Salvio G, Cutini M, Muscogiuri G, Corona G, Balercia G. Vitamin D and Male Sexual Function: A Transversal and Longitudinal Study. Int J Endocrinol. 2018 Jan 8;2018:3720813. doi: 10.1155/2018/3720813. PMID: 29531528; PMCID: PMC5817208.

34] Vitamin D stimulates nitric oxide production:

Molinari C, Uberti F, Grossini E, Vacca G, Carda S, Invernizzi M, Cisari C. 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol induces nitric oxide production in cultured endothelial cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;27(6):661-8. doi: 10.1159/000330075. Epub 2011 Jun 17. PMID: 21691084.

35] People with anxiety and depression are more likely to be vitamin D deficient:

Armstrong, D.J., Meenagh, G.K., Bickle, I. et al. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol 26, 551–554 (2007). Doi: 10.1007/s10067-006-0348-5

36] Vitamin D significantly improved symptoms of depression:

Jorde R, Sneve M, Figenschau Y, Svartberg J & Waterloo K. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2008 Nov. doi: 10.1111

37] Ginseng increased free and total testosterone, LH and DHT:

Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, Paolini P, De Nuccio I, Pepe M, Re M. Effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panminerva Med. 1996 Dec;38(4):249-54. PMID: 9063034.

38] Ginseng improves libido, erectile function and overall satisfaction:

Kim TH, Jeon SH, Hahn EJ, Paek KY, Park JK, Youn NY, Lee HL. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl. 2009 May;11(3):356-61. doi: 10.1038/aja.2008.32. Epub 2009 Feb 23. PMID: 19234482; PMCID: PMC3735289.

39] Ginseng improves libido, erectile function and overall satisfaction:

Ham WS, Kim WT, Lee JS, Ju HJ, Kang SJ, Oh JH, Her Y, Chung JY, Park K, Choi YD. Efficacy and safety of red ginseng extract powder in patients with erectile dysfunction: multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Korean journal of urology, 2009, 50(2), 159‐164

40] Korean red ginseng improved ED symptoms by 60% compared to 30% with an ED drug:

Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 1995 Sep;7(3):181-6. PMID: 8750052.

41] Ginsenosides increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels:

Shi J, Xue W, Zhao WJ, Li KX. Pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine releasing effects of ginsenoside Re in hippocampus and mPFC of freely moving rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013 Feb;34(2):214-20. doi: 10.1038/aps.2012.147. Epub 2012 Dec 3. PMID: 23202798; PMCID: PMC4011622.

42] Ginsenosides may improve nitric oxide production:

Choi YD, Rha KH, Choi HK. In vitro and in vivo experimental effect of Korean red ginseng on erection. J Urol. 1999 Oct;162(4):1508-11. PMID: 10492246.

43, 44] Ginseng improves energy levels:

Arring NM, Millstine D, Marks LA, Nail LM. Ginseng as a Treatment for Fatigue: A Systematic Review. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Jul;24(7):624-633. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0361. Epub 2018 Apr 6. PMID: 29624410. NYTimes 2012 Jun-18

45, 46, 47] Ginseng oligopeptides and polysaccharides possess anti-fatigue effects:

Bao L, Cai X, Wang J, Zhang Y, Sun B, Li Y. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice. Nutrients. 2016 Dec 13;8(12):807. doi: 10.3390/nu8120807. PMID: 27983571

Wang J, Li S, Fan Y, Chen Y, Liu D, Cheng H, Gao X, Zhou Y. Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):421-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.027. Epub 2010 May 24. PMID: 20580802. 

Wang J, Sun C, Zheng Y, Pan H, Zhou Y, Fan Y. The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Pharm Res. 2014 Apr;37(4):530-8. doi: 10.1007/s12272-013-0235-y. Epub 2013 Aug 21. PMID: 23963977.

48] Ginseng may enhance physical performance, especially in those over 40:

Bucci RL, Selected herbals and human exercise performance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Volume 72, Issue 2, August 2000, Pages 624S–636S, doi.10.1093/ajcn/72.2.624S 

49, 50, 51] Ginseng significantly improved cognitive performance and reduced mental fatigue:

Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jul;19(4):357-65. doi: 10.1177/0269881105053286. PMID: 15982990.

Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;25(6):462-71. doi: 10.1002/hup.1138. PMID: 20737519.

Reay, Jonathon & Scholey, Andrew & O., Kennedy. (2007). Effects of 8 weeks administration of Korean Panax ginseng extract on the mood and cognitive performance of healthy individuals. Journal of Ginseng Research. Doi:  10.5142/JGR.2007.31.1.034.

52] Ginseng improved mood and ratings of quality of life:

Reay, Jonathon & Scholey, Andrew & O., Kennedy. (2007). Effects of 8 weeks administration of Korean Panax ginseng extract on the mood and cognitive performance of healthy individuals. Journal of Ginseng Research. Doi:  10.5142/JGR.2007.31.1.034. 

53, 54] Korean red ginseng may increase fat breakdown and prevent the formation of new fat cells:

Shin SS, Yoon M. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) inhibits obesity and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed castrated mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jan 10;210:80-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.08.032. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28844680.

Park K, Yoon M. Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Potentiates the Inhibitory Actions of Testosterone on Obesity and Adipogenesis in High Fat Diet-Fed Castrated Mice. Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences. Biomed Sci Letters 2017;23:261-27

55] Boron beneficially effects testosterone metabolism:

Pizzorno L. Nothing Boring About Boron. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Aug;14(4):35-48. PMID: 26770156; PMCID: PMC4712861.

56] 10mg boron increased free testosterone by levels by 28% in 7 days:

Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asgari AR, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MS. Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011 Jan;25(1):54-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Dec 3. PMID: 21129941.

57] Boron significantly improves the absorption of magnesium and vitamin D:

Pizzorno L. Nothing Boring About Boron. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Aug;14(4):35-48. PMID: 26770156; PMCID: PMC4712861.

58] Boron improved eye-hand coordination tasks, attention and memory:

Penland JG. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 7(Suppl 7):65-72. doi: 10.1289/ehp.94102s765. PMID: 7889884; PMCID: PMC1566632.

59, 60, 61] Lignans from stinging nettle roots reduce binding activity SHBG:

Schöttner M, Gansser D, Spiteller G. Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Planta Med. 1997 Dec;63(6):529-32. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957756. PMID: 9434605.

Gansser D, Spiteller G. Plant constituents interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin. Evaluation of a test method and its application to Urtica dioica root extracts. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. 1995 Jan-Feb;50(1-2):98-104. PMID: 7702715

Hryb DJ, Khan MS, Romas NA, Rosner W. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Planta Med. 1995 Feb;61(1):31-2. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957993. PMID: 7700987.

62, 63] Stinging nettle lignans prevented the binding of DHT by up to 67%:

Hryb DJ, Khan MS, Romas NA, Rosner W. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Planta Med. 1995 Feb;61(1):31-2. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957993. PMID: 7700987.

Schmidt K. Die Wirkung eines Radix Urticae-Extrakts und einzelner Nebenextrakte auf das SHBG des Blutplasmas bei der benignen Prostatahyperplasie [Effect of radix urticae extract and its several secondary extracts on blood SHBG in benign prostate hyperplasia]. Fortschr Med. 1983 Apr 21;101(15):713-6. German. PMID: 6189775.

64] Stinging nettle may help slow the conversion of testosterone to estrogen:

Chrubasik JE, Roufogalis BD, Wagner H, Chrubasik S. A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix. Phytomedicine. 2007 Aug;14(7-8):568-79. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2007.03.014. Epub 2007 May 16. PMID: 17509841.

65] Daily magnesium supplementation significantly increased testosterone compared to a placebo:

Brilla LR, Haley TF. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Jun;11(3):326-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1992.10718233. PMID: 1619184.

66] Magnesium enhanced total and free testosterone levels in both active and sedentary men, especially in men who exercised:

Cinar V, Polat Y, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Apr;140(1):18-23. doi: 10.1007/s12011-010-8676-3. Epub 2010 Mar 30. PMID: 20352370.

67] Older men with higher magnesium levels also had higher testosterone levels:

Maggio M, Ceda GP, Lauretani F, Cattabiani C, Avantaggiato E, Morganti S, Ablondi F, Bandinelli S, Dominguez LJ, Barbagallo M, Paolisso G, Semba RD, Ferrucci L. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men. Int J Androl. 2011 Dec;34(6 Pt 2):e594-600. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01193.x. Epub 2011 Jun 15. PMID: 21675994; PMCID: PMC4623306.

68] Older men are at higher risk of magnesium deficiency:

Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB. A review of magnesium intake in the elderly. A cause for concern? Magnes Res. 1992 Mar;5(1):61-7. PMID: 1591145.

69] Low magnesium levels may interfere with the body’s ability to efficiently use energy stores:

Lukaski HC, Nielsen FH. Dietary Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses during Submaximal Exercise in Postmenopausal Women. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND 58202

70] Magnesium enhances glucose availability to muscles:

Chen HY, Cheng FC, Pan HC, Hsu JC, Wang MF. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 20;9(1):e85486. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085486. PMID: 24465574

71] Triathlon athletes had faster running, swimming and cycling times after taking magnesium for 4 weeks:

Golf SW, Bender S, Grüttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998 Sep;12 Suppl 2:197-202. doi: 10.1023/a:1007708918683. PMID: 9794094.

72] Magnesium significantly increased strength compared to a placebo:

Brilla LR, Haley TF. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Jun;11(3):326-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1992.10718233. PMID: 1619184.

73] 450mg of magnesium daily was as effective at improving mood as an antidepressant drug:

Barragán-Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial. Magnes Res. 2008 Dec;21(4):218-23. PMID: 19271419.

74] People taking a daily magnesium supplement slept significantly better than those taking a placebo:

Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2012 Dec;17(12):1161-9. PMID: 23853635

75] Vitamin B6 deficiency is linked to lower testosterone and increased estrogen levels:

Symes EK, Bender DA, Bowden JF, Coulson WF. Increased target tissue uptake of, and sensitivity to, testosterone in the vitamin B6 deficient rat. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 May;20(5):1089-93. doi: 10.1016/0022-4731(84)90348-0. PMID: 6727359.

76] B vitamins contribute to a normal, energy-yielding metabolism:

European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2010,  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1757

77] B vitamins convert amino acids into serotonin and noradrenaline:

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients. 2016 Jan 27;8(2):68. doi: 10.3390/nu8020068. PMID: 26828517; PMCID: PMC4772032.

78] Higher vitamin K intake is linked to lower risk of depressive symptoms:

Bolzetta F, Veronese N, Stubbs B, Noale M, Vaona A, Demurtas J, Celotto S, Cacco C, Cester A, Caruso MG, Reddavide R, Notarnicola M, Maggi S, Koyanagi A, Fornaro M, Firth J, Smith L, Solmi M. The Relationship between Dietary Vitamin K and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from a Large Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 5;11(4):787. doi: 10.3390/nu11040787. PMID: 30959758; PMCID: d

79] HIgher vitamin K intake is associated with improved cognitive performance in those over 70:

Presse N, Belleville S, Gaudreau P, Greenwood CE, Kergoat MJ, Morais JA, Payette H, Shatenstein B, Ferland G. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Dec;34(12):2777-83. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.05.031. Epub 2013 Jul 11. PMID: 23850343.

80] Vitamin K plays an important role in cognitive health, especially during aging:

Ferland G. Vitamin K and the nervous system: an overview of its actions. Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar 1;3(2):204-12. doi: 10.3945/an.111.001784. PMID: 22516728; PMCID: PMC3648721.

81] Bioperine increases bioavailability up to 30%: